Why Use declare(strict_types=1) in PHP?

Why Use `declare(strict_types=1) in PHP?

In PHP, the `declare(strict_types=1);` directive is used to enforce strict type-checking for the file in which it is declared. By default, PHP uses dynamic typing, which means that it attempts to automatically convert types when they don’t match the expected type. This can sometimes lead to unexpected behavior and bugs that are hard to trace. Enforcing strict types helps to catch type errors early in the development process.

Benefits of Using `declare(strict_types=1)`

  1. Error Prevention: it prevents type coercion, ensuring that the types you specify in function signatures and variable declarations are strictly adhered to.
  2. Code Clarity: it makes the code easier to read and understand, as the types are explicit and enforced.
  3. Better IDE Support: many modern IDEs provide better support and auto-completion when strict types are used, enhancing the development experience.
  4. Consistency: it enforces a consistent coding style across the project, reducing the likelihood of type-related bugs.

Where to Use `declare(strict_types=1)`

  • On top of PHP files: it should be placed at the very top of a PHP file before any other code, including whitespace or comments.
  • In files with function definitions: particularly useful in files where functions or methods are defined, as it ensures that the arguments and return types are strictly checked.
  • In files with class definitions: when defining classes, strict typing ensures that the properties and methods behave as expected with the correct types.

Example with `declare(strict_types=1)`


function addNumbers(int $a, int $b): int {
    return $a + $b;

echo addNumbers(5, 10); // 15
echo addNumbers(5, '10'); // TypeError: Argument 2 passed to addNumbers() must be of the type int, string given

In this example, the second call to `addNumbers` with a string `’10’` will throw a `TypeError` because strict typing is enforced.

Example without `declare(strict_types=1)`


function addNumbers(int $a, int $b): int {
    return $a + $b;

echo addNumbers(5, 10); // 15
echo addNumbers(5, '10'); // 15

Without strict types, PHP will automatically convert the string `’10’` to an integer, and the function will return `15` without any error. While this might seem convenient, it can lead to subtle bugs and unexpected behavior, especially in larger codebases.


Using `declare(strict_types=1);` in PHP is a best practice that can help prevent type-related bugs, make your code more readable, and improve overall code quality. It should be placed at the top of files that contain function or class definitions to enforce strict type-checking throughout the file.

By understanding and implementing strict typing, you can write more robust and maintainable PHP code, ensuring that types are explicitly checked and errors are caught early in the development process.

How to fix LF will be replaced by CRLF the next time Git touches it on Windows

To disable Git warnings about line endings on Windows, you can configure Git to handle line endings according to your preference. Here are a few options:

Option 1: Configure Git to Use LF Line Endings

You can set Git to use LF line endings by running the following command:

git config --global core.autocrlf input

This setting ensures that Git will convert CRLF to LF on commit but will not modify line endings when checking out files.

Option 2: Configure Git to Use CRLF Line Endings

If you prefer to use CRLF line endings on Windows, you can set Git to automatically convert LF to CRLF on checkout and CRLF to LF on commit:

git config --global core.autocrlf true

Option 3: Disable Line Ending Conversion Warnings

If you want to disable the warnings without changing how Git handles line endings, you can use the following command:

git config --global core.eol native

This setting tells Git to use the native line endings for the operating system and suppresses related warnings.

Option 4: Disable Line Ending Conversion Entirely

To disable all automatic line ending conversion, you can use:

git config --global core.autocrlf false

This setting will keep line endings unchanged, which might not be ideal for collaboration but can eliminate the warnings.

Option 5: Suppress Specific Warnings

If you want to suppress this specific warning, you can add a `.gitattributes` file to the root of your repository and specify how Git should handle line endings for specific files:

  1. Create or edit a `.gitattributes` file in the root of your repository.
  2. Add the following line to the file to specify that PHP files should always use LF line endings:
    *.php text eol=lf
  3. Save the `.gitattributes` file and commit it to your repository. This will ensure consistent line endings for PHP files and suppress the warnings.

Choose the option that best fits your workflow and collaboration needs.

Converting WebP Images to PNG on Linux: A Comprehensive Guide

If you’re working with images on Linux, you might often encounter WebP format, which is known for its efficient compression. However, there might be instances where you need to convert these WebP images to more widely supported formats like PNG. In this guide, we’ll explore how to convert WebP images to PNG using various tools available on Linux, with a special focus on ImageMagick. We’ll also show you how to automate the conversion process for all WebP images in a directory.

Installing the Required Tools

Before we dive into the conversion process, we need to ensure that the necessary tools are installed. We will use `ffmpeg`, `imagemagick`, and `dwebp` from WebP tools for our conversions.

  1. Installing ffmpeg:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install ffmpeg
  2. Installing ImageMagick:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install imagemagick
  3. Installing WebP tools:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install webp

Converting WebP to PNG Using `ffmpeg`

Once `ffmpeg` is installed, converting a WebP image to PNG is straightforward:

ffmpeg -i input.webp output.png

For converting to JPEG, you can use:

ffmpeg -i input.webp output.jpg

Converting WebP to PNG Using ImageMagick

ImageMagick provides a powerful way to handle image conversions:

convert input.webp output.png

For JPEG conversion:

convert input.webp output.jpg

Converting WebP to PNG Using dwebp

The `dwebp` tool from the WebP package can also be used for conversion:

dwebp input.webp -o output.png

To convert to JPEG, first convert to PPM and then to JPEG:

dwebp input.webp -o output.ppm
convert output.ppm output.jpg

Automating the Conversion for All WebP Images in a Directory

To convert all WebP images in the current directory to PNG, you can use a shell script or a one-liner command.

Using a Shell Script

  1. Create the script:
       nano convert_webp_to_png.sh
  2. Add the following content:
       for file in *.webp; do
           if [ -f "$file" ]; then
               convert "$file" "${file%.webp}.png"
               echo "Converted $file to ${file%.webp}.png"
  3. Make the script executable and run it:
    chmod +x convert_webp_to_png.sh

Using a One-Liner Command

Alternatively, use a one-liner command in the terminal:

for file in *.webp; do convert "$file" "${file%.webp}.png"; done


Converting WebP images to PNG on Linux is a simple task with the right tools. Whether you prefer `ffmpeg`, `imagemagick`, or `dwebp`, each method provides an efficient way to handle image format conversions. Automating the process for multiple images can save you a lot of time and effort. We hope this guide helps streamline your image processing tasks on Linux.

Streamline Your PHP Laravel Development with Code Sniffer on Ubuntu


In the dynamic world of web development, maintaining code quality and consistency can be a challenge, especially as projects grow and teams expand. For PHP Laravel developers working on Ubuntu, integrating a tool like PHP Code Sniffer can be a game-changer. This tutorial will guide you through the steps to set up PHP Code Sniffer in your Laravel environment, demonstrating how to enforce coding standards effortlessly.

Step 1: Prepare Your Environment

Begin by navigating to your Laravel project directory on your Ubuntu system. Open your terminal and enter the following command:

cd /home/user/projects/laravel-test

Step 2: Install PHP Code Sniffer

PHP Code Sniffer is a crucial tool for detecting violations in coding standards. To add it to your project, execute the following command in the terminal:

composer require --dev squizlabs/php_codesniffer

This command installs Code Sniffer as a development dependency, ensuring your production environment remains clean.

Step 3: Explore PHP Code Sniffer Commands

Before diving into code checks, familiarize yourself with the available PHP Code Sniffer commands. Run the following to view a list of options and flags:

vendor/bin/phpcs --help

Step 4: Run a Code Check

To analyze your Laravel application’s code, use this verbose command, which provides detailed feedback:

vendor/bin/phpcs -v app

This step helps identify areas of your code that may not meet specified coding standards, providing a basis for improvement.

Step 5: Automatically Fix Coding Errors

For many common coding issues, PHP Code Sniffer can automatically correct code through PHP Code Beautifier and Fixer. To apply automatic fixes using the PSR12 standard, use:

vendor/bin/phpcbf --standard=PSR12 app

Step 6: Laravel-Specific Code Fixing with Pint

Laravel Pint is another tool designed to work seamlessly with Laravel projects. Execute the following command to automatically fix coding style issues throughout your Laravel codebase:



Integrating PHP Code Sniffer into your Laravel projects on Ubuntu Linux not only helps maintain high coding standards but also streamlines your development process. With automated tools for code quality checks and fixes, you can focus more on functionality and less on style discrepancies. Embrace these tools to enhance your development workflow and elevate the quality of your projects.

Next Steps:

Experiment with different coding standards and configurations of PHP Code Sniffer to tailor the tool to your team’s needs. Explore integrating t:hese checks into your continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines to automate quality assurance throughout your development lifecycle.

Check out video tutorial at Efficient PHP Laravel Testing: Master Code Sniffer on Ubuntu Linux if you prefer watch video tutorials instead of reading text.

Exploring the Magic of CSV File Handling in PHP: From Reading to Saving Data

In this blog post, we will delve into how the PHP programming language can be effectively utilized to manage data in CSV format. PHP provides straightforward methods for reading and writing CSV files, a crucial skill for developers who handle large volumes of data.

Reading a CSV File

The first step in managing a CSV file is reading its contents. Below is an updated `readCsvFile` function, incorporating exception handling instead of abrupt script termination:

function readCsvFile(string $csvFilePath) : array
    // Attempt to open the file in read mode
    if (($handle = fopen($csvFilePath, "r")) === FALSE) {
        throw new Exception("Error opening the file: " . $csvFilePath);

    $csvData = []; // Initialize an empty array to store the CSV data

    // Loop through each line of the file
    while (($data = fgetcsv($handle, 1000, ",")) !== FALSE) {
        $csvData[] = $data; // Add the row to the array

    fclose($handle); // Close the file handle

    return $csvData; // The array can now be processed as needed

This function opens the file in read mode and reads it line by line. If the file cannot be opened, it throws an exception, allowing for better error management. Each line of data is stored in the `$csvData` array, which is then returned from the function, making it easy to manipulate the read data within your program.

Writing Data to a CSV File

After processing your data, you may need to save it back in CSV format. The `saveArrayToCSV` function demonstrates how to write an array of data to a CSV file:

function saveArrayToCSV(array $array, string $filePath)
    // Open the file for writing
    $fileHandle = fopen($filePath, 'w');

    if ($fileHandle === false) {
        throw new Exception("Failed to open the file for writing.");

    foreach ($array as $row) {
        if (fputcsv($fileHandle, $row) === false) {
            throw new Exception("Failed to write data to the file.");

    fclose($fileHandle); // Close the file

This function opens a file for writing and iterates over the provided array, writing each row to the file. The `fputcsv()` PHP function automatically formats each array row as a CSV line. If the file cannot be opened or a row cannot be written, the function throws an exception, which can be caught and handled by the caller.

Here’s an example of how you might handle this exception in a higher level of your application:

try {
    $csvData = readCsvFile("path/to/your/file.csv");
    // Process $csvData here
} catch (Exception $e) {
    // Handle the error gracefully
    echo "Failed to read the CSV file. Please try again or contact support.";

Using code example above gives you much greater control over how errors affect on your application’s flow and user experience.


Handling CSV files in PHP is a practical way to manage data, particularly for importing and exporting large datasets. The revised `readCsvFile` and `saveArrayToCSV` functions showcased above demonstrate a robust approach to such tasks, emphasizing exception handling for improved error management. Whether your goal is to process reports, import user data, or simply maintain records, these functions will help you manage your data efficiently and effectively.

Streamline Your Development with Laravel Seeders

Laravel’s powerful seeding capability offers a robust way to populate your databases with necessary initial data for testing and development purposes. In this post, we’ll delve into how you can manually run a seeder to fill a specific database table with data using Laravel’s artisan command line tool.

What is a Seeder in Laravel?

In Laravel, a “seeder” is a class that contains a method to populate your database with data. This can be especially useful when you want to automate the process of adding data to your database during development or before you deploy an application. Seeders can be used to generate dummy data for your application’s testing purposes or to load initial data required for the application to run properly in production.

Creating a Seeder

To start, you first need to create a seeder class. This can be done using the Artisan command line tool provided by Laravel. Open your terminal and navigate to your Laravel project directory. Run the following command to create a new seeder:

php artisan make:seeder SeederClassName

Replace `SeederClassName` with the name you want to give to your seeder. Laravel will create a new seeder file in the `database/seeders` directory.

Writing Your Seeder

Open the newly created seeder file located at `database/seeders/SeederClassName.php`. In this file, you will see a class with the same name as your seeder. Inside the class, there’s a `run` method where you’ll place the code to insert data into your database.

Here’s a simple example where we populate a `users` table:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\DB;
use Illuminate\Support\Str;

class SeederClassName extends Seeder
    public function run()
            'name' => Str::random(10),
            'email' => Str::random(10).'@example.com',
            'password' => bcrypt('password'),

In this example, we use the `DB` facade to directly access the database and insert a new record into the `users` table. Modify this according to your table structure and data requirements.

Running the Seeder

Once your seeder is ready, you can run it manually using the following command:

php artisan db:seed --class=SeederClassName

This command will execute the `run` method in your seeder class, inserting the data into your database as specified.


Seeders in Laravel are a great tool for managing data filling during development or production setup. They can help you automate the process of adding initial data, making your development process smoother and more efficient. With the ability to run specific seeders manually, you have precise control over what data gets loaded and when.

Remember to always use non-sensitive data in your seeders, especially when developing applications that will be deployed to production environments.

Monitoring Processes in Linux with the ps Command: checking web server Apache processes information

In the vast toolbox of Linux system monitoring utilities, the `ps` command stands out for its direct approach to tracking what’s happening on your server or desktop. Whether you’re a system administrator, a developer, or simply a curious user, knowing how to leverage `ps` can provide you with insights into the processes running under the hood of your Linux machine.

Why we use `ps` utility?

The `ps` command is versatile and powerful, offering a snapshot of currently running processes. It’s particularly handy when you need to verify whether a specific service, like the Apache web server, is running and how it’s behaving in terms of resource consumption.

Example Use Case: Checking Apache Processes

Httpd or Apache web server is a widely used web server software, is essential for serving web pages. If you’re managing a website or a web application, you might often need to check if Apache is running smoothly. Here’s how you can do that with `ps`:

ps auxwww | head -n 1; ps auxwww | grep httpd | grep -v grep

This command sequence is broken down as follows:

  • `ps auxwww`: Lists all running processes with a detailed output.
  • `head -n 1`: Displays the column headers.
  • `grep httpd`: Filters the list to show only Apache (`httpd`) processes.
  • `grep -v grep`: Excludes the `grep` command itself from the results.

Output Explained:

root 21215 0.0 0.1 524056 30560 ? Ss 16:59 0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache 21216 0.0 0.0 308392 14032 ? S 16:59 0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  • USER: The username of the process owner.
  • PID: Process ID.
  • %CPU and %MEM: CPU and memory usage.
  • VSZ and RSS: Virtual and physical memory sizes.
  • TTY: Terminal type.
  • STAT: Process status.
  • START: Start time of the process.
  • TIME: Cumulative CPU time.
  • COMMAND: Command line that started the process.

Going Further:

To explore more options and details about the `ps` command, consulting the manual page is always a good idea. Simply type:

man ps

This command brings up the manual page for `ps`, providing comprehensive information on its usage, options, and examples to try out.


Understanding and utilizing the `ps` command can significantly enhance your ability to monitor and manage processes on your Linux system. It’s a fundamental skill for troubleshooting and ensuring that essential services like Apache are running as expected.

How to Find and Kill Processes in Linux: A Practical Guide

Managing processes efficiently is a fundamental skill for any Linux user. There are instances, such as when an application becomes unresponsive or is consuming too much memory, where terminating processes becomes necessary. This post builds on the basics covered in a previous article, “Monitoring Processes in Linux with the ps Command: checking web server Apache processes information“, and dives into how to find and terminate specific processes, using `httpd` processes as our example.

Finding `httpd` Processes

To list all active `httpd` processes, use the command:

ps aux | grep -v grep | grep "httpd"

This command filters the list of all running processes to only show those related to `httpd`. The `grep -v grep` part excludes the grep command itself from the results.

Understanding the Output

The output columns USER, PID, %CPU, and others provide detailed information about each process, including its ID (PID) which is crucial for process management.

Killing Processes Manually

To terminate a process, you can use the `kill` command followed by the process ID (PID):

kill -s 9 29708 29707 ...

Here, `-s 9` specifies the SIGKILL signal, forcing the processes to stop immediately. It’s important to use SIGKILL cautiously, as it does not allow the application to perform any cleanup operations.

Automating with a Script

For convenience, you can automate this task with a simple shell script:


# Find PIDs of httpd processes
OLD_HTTPD_PIDS=$(ps aux | grep "httpd" | grep -v "grep" | awk '{print $2}')

# Loop through and kill each process
for FPID in ${OLD_HTTPD_PIDS}; do
  echo "Killing httpd process pid: ${FPID}"
  kill -s 9 ${FPID}

After saving the script as `/root/bin/kill_httpd.sh`, make it executable:

chmod -v 755 /root/bin/kill_httpd.sh

And run it:


Final Thoughts

Proper process management ensures the smooth operation of Linux systems. While SIGKILL is effective for unresponsive processes, understanding different signals and their effects allows for more nuanced control. Always proceed with caution, especially when terminating processes, to avoid unintended system behavior or data loss.

How to fix pass store is uninitialized on Ubuntu Linux in Docker setup

The error message you’re seeing, “pass store is uninitialized“, indicates that the `pass` utility, which Docker uses for secure password storage, hasn’t been set up yet. To initialize `pass` and resolve this error, follow these steps:

  1. **Install Pass**: If you haven’t already, ensure that the `pass` password manager is installed on your system. You can do this on a Debian-based system (like Ubuntu) using:
       sudo apt-get update
       sudo apt-get install pass
  2. Initialize the Password Store: The password store needs to be initialized with a GPG key. If you don’t have a GPG key yet, you’ll need to create one:
    • Generate a GPG Key (if needed):
           gpg --full-generate-key

      Follow the prompts to create your key. You’ll be asked to provide a name, email, and a passphrase. Remember or securely store the passphrase, as it’s needed to unlock the key.

    • List GPG Keys:
      After creating a GPG key, list your available GPG keys to find the ID of the key you want to use with `pass`:

           gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG

      Look for a line that looks like `sec rsa4096/KEY_ID_HERE 202X-XX-XX [SC]`. The `KEY_ID_HERE` part is your key ID.

    • Initialize Pass:
      With your GPG key ID, initialize the `pass` store:

           pass init "KEY_ID_HERE"
  3. Verify Initialization: To verify that `pass` has been initialized and is working, try adding a test entry:
       pass insert docker-credential-helpers/test

    When prompted, enter a test password. You can then list the contents of your password store:

  4. Configure Docker to Use `pass`: Ensure Docker is configured to use `pass` by checking your `~/.docker/config.json` file. It should have a line that specifies `pass` as the credsStore or credential helper:

    "credsStore": "pass"

By following these steps, you should be able to initialize `pass` for Docker credential storage and resolve the “pass store is uninitialized” error. If you encounter any issues along the way, the error messages provided by each command can often give clues on how to proceed.

Secure Your Web Development Workflow: Generating and Using PGP Keys in phpStorm IDE on Linux

In today’s digital age, security is paramount, especially when it comes to web development. As developers, we handle sensitive information regularly, from user credentials to proprietary code. One way to enhance the security of your development workflow is by using Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) keys. In this guide, we’ll walk through the process of generating and utilizing PGP keys within the popular phpStorm IDE on a Linux environment.

Why using PGP Keys?

PGP keys provide a robust method for encrypting and decrypting sensitive data, ensuring confidentiality and integrity. By utilizing PGP keys, you can securely communicate with other developers, sign commits to verify authenticity, and encrypt sensitive files.

Step 1: Install GnuPG

Before generating PGP keys, ensure that GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard) is installed on your Linux system. Most distributions include GnuPG in their package repositories. You can install it using your package manager:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install gnupg

Step 2: Generate PGP Keys

Open a terminal window and enter the following command to generate a new PGP key pair:

gpg --full-generate-key

Follow the prompts to select the key type and size, specify the expiration date, and enter your name and email address. Ensure to use the email associated with your phpStorm IDE account.

Step 3: Configure phpStorm

  1. Open phpStorm and navigate to File > Settings (or PhpStorm > Preferences on macOS).
  2. In the Settings window, expand the “Version Control” section and select “GPG/PGP.”
  3. Click on the “Add” button and browse to the location of your PGP executable (usually `/usr/bin/gpg`).
  4. Click “OK” to save the configuration.

Step 4: Import Your PGP Key

Back in the terminal, export your PGP public key:

gpg --export -a "Your Name" > public_key.asc

Import the exported public key into phpStorm:

  1. In phpStorm, go to File > Settings > Version Control > GPG/PGP.
  2. Click on the “Import” button and select the `public_key.asc` file.
  3. phpStorm will import the key and associate it with your IDE.

Step 5: Start Using PGP Keys

Now that your PGP key is set up in phpStorm, you can start utilizing its features:

  • Signing Commits: When committing changes to your version control system (e.g., Git), phpStorm will prompt you to sign your commits using your PGP key.
  • Encrypting Files: You can encrypt sensitive files before sharing them with collaborators, ensuring that only authorized individuals can access their contents.
  • Verifying Signatures: phpStorm will automatically verify the signatures of commits and files, providing an extra layer of trust in your development process.

By integrating PGP keys into your phpStorm workflow, you bolster the security of your web development projects, safeguarding sensitive data and ensuring the integrity of your codebase. Take the necessary steps today to fortify your development environment and embrace the power of encryption. Happy coding!